Application Areas

A WMO Application Area is an activity involving the direct use of observations that allows National Meteorological and Hydrological Services or other organizations to render services related to weather, climate and water, and other environmental events, contributing to public safety, socioeconomic well-being and development in their respective countries. The concept of a WMO Application Area is used in the framework of the WMO RRR and describes a homogeneous activity for which it is possible to compile a consistent set of observational user requirements agreed upon by community experts working in this area.

The table below lists all application areas and the respective focal points maintaining requirements for these. For any enquiries or questions on particular requirements recorded in OSCAR, please contact the focal points directly, where an email address is provided.

Name Description Focal Point Organization Earth System Application Category
1.1 Sun, Heliosphere and Solar Wind Forecasting and Monitoring Nicole Vilmer
WMO 1. Space Weather Applications
1.2 Energetic Particle and Magnetosphere Forecasting and Monitoring Sergio Dasso
WMO 1. Space Weather Applications
1.3 Ionosphere, Thermosphere and Geomagnetic Field Forecasting and Monitoring Kirsti Kauristie
WMO 1. Space Weather Applications
2.1 Global Numerical Weather Prediction and Real-time Monitoring Global Numerical Weather Prediction Kozo Okamoto
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.2 High-Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction High-resolution (HR) Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) focuses on observing systems required by high-resolution NWP models producing forecasts of meteorological events with a 1-5 km horizontal resolution, 6 hours to a few days ahead. Such forecasts are more detailed than those available from global models, due to more realistic descriptions of atmospheric phenomena such as clouds and precipitation. The added detail is made possible by a finer computational grid on a specific area, more detailed specification of terrain, more sophisticated prescription of physical processes mainly based on explicit rather than parameterised formulations, and, importantly, denser and more frequent observations (with respect to global NWP) to specify appropriately detailed initial conditions.   WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.3 Nowcasting / Very Short-Range Forecasting Nowcasting, as outlined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), involves detailed forecasting of local weather, utilizing any method to predict conditions from the present to six hours ahead. It provides a comprehensive portrayal of the current weather, leveraging real-time observational data such as surface observations, satellite imagery, lightning, radar data, etc. Nowcasting by extrapolation excels in delivering high-resolution forecasts of weather phenomena for the immediate (2 hour) future. Advancements in data assimilation systems enable Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) to outperform nowcast extrapolation thereafter. The use of NWP with data assimilation forms the basis of Very Short Range Forecasting (VSRF) up to 12 hours. To ensure a seamless VSRF, crucial in high-impact weather situations, advanced centers blend both NWP and nowcasting. This integration plays a vital role in issuing timely warnings and aiding decision-makers across various sectors. Aitor Atencia Ruiz de Gopegui
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.4 Sub-Seasonal to Longer Predictions Sub-seasonal to longer predictions (SSLP) covers predictions in sub-seasonal to decadal time-ranges (roughly two weeks to 10 years), using numerical prediction models based on current and past observations and analyses. Jeff Knight
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.5 Atmospheric Climate Monitoring This AA covers the set of atmospheric observations defined by Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as essential to detect, model and assess climate change and its impact; support adaptation to climate change; monitor the effectiveness of policies for mitigating climate change; and develop climate information services. Caterina Tassone
GCOS 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.6 Atmospheric Composition Forecasting and Monitoring Applications related to evaluating and analysing temporal and spatial changes in atmospheric composition, at regional and global scale. They aim to support treaty monitoring, climatologies, and re-analyses, assessing trends in composition and emissions/fluxes, and to better understand processes, principally in the troposphere and stratosphere. The applications rely on the use of data of controlled quality with less stringent time requirements compared to the near-real-time requirements. These data are also used to derive products that are published in the WMO ozone and greenhouse gas bulletins and the state of the atmosphere reports (for example, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion reports). Richard Eckman
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.7 Atmospheric Composition Information Services in Urban and Populated Areas Applications that target limited areas (with horizontal resolution of a few km or smaller and stringent timeliness requirements to support services related to weather/climate/pollution, such as air quality forecasting. Richard Eckman
WMO
2.8 Aeronautical Meteorology Application of meteorological information to aviation taking into account relevant developments in science and technology and the study of aeronautical meteorological requirements in support of the safety, regularity, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation with users ranging from pilots, air traffic control and management to airline dispatch offices as well as airport authorities. Yiu-Fai Lee
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
2.9 Agricultural Meteorology Applications of meteorology to agriculture (agrometeorology). Robert Stefanski
WMO 2. Atmospheric Applications
3.1 Ocean Forecasting and Real-Time Monitoring   WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
3.2 Coastal Forecasting Laura Tuomi
WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
3.3 Oceanic Climate Monitoring and Services This AA covers the set of oceanic observations defined by Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as essential to detect, model and assess climate change and its impact; support adaptation to climate change; monitor the effectiveness of policies for mitigating climate change; and develop climate information services. Belén Martín Míguez
WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
3.4 Tsunami Monitoring and Detection   WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
3.5 Marine Environmental Emergency Response Graigory Sutherland
WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
3.6 Maritime Safety (ports to open ocean) Anish Hebbar
WMO 3. Oceanic Applications
4.1 Hydrological Forecasting and Real-time Monitoring Application covering the forecasting and the real-time monitoring in the field of terrestrial hydrology. Emmanuel Brocard
WMO 4. Hydrological and Terrestrial Applications
4.2 Hydrological and Terrestrial Climate Monitoring This AA covers the set of hydrological and other terrestrial observations defined by Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as essential to detect, model and assess climate change and its impact; support adaptation to climate change; monitor the effectiveness of policies for mitigating climate change; and develop climate information services. Antonio Bombelli
WMO 4. Hydrological and Terrestrial Applications
5.1 Terrestrial Cryosphere Forecasting and Monitoring   WMO 5. Cryospheric Applications
5.2 Sea-Ice Forecasting and Monitoring   WMO 5. Cryospheric Applications
5.3 Cryospheric Climate Monitoring   WMO 5. Cryospheric Applications
6.1 Earth System Forecasting and Monitoring Vijay Tallapragada
WMO 6. Integrated Earth System Applications
6.2 Understanding Earth System Processes KK PP
WMO 6. Integrated Earth System Applications
6.3 AA Test Alex Alex
WMO 6. Integrated Earth System Applications