BackForward Satellite Programme: Ionozond 

Programme details
Programme description
  • Constellation of 5 satellites to observe ionospheric processes.
  • Russian programme, developed and operated by Roscosmos.
  • The satellites are 3-axis stabilised.
  • The design lifetime is 3 years.
  • Three orbits exploited: two sunsynchronous, with two satellites each, dephased by 180*, the two orbital planes perpendicular to each other; one in a lower, drifting orbit.
  • Detailed description not officially available.
Data circulation
  • TBD,
Agencies Roscosmos
Programme lifetime 2024 - 2028
Associated satellites and instruments

Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational , blue tag => planned