Series of 2 satellites for Land observation.
Russian programme: Roscosmos responsible of development and operations.
The platforms are actively stabilised over 3 axes.
The design life time is 5 years.
The satellites exploit sunsynchronous orbits around 10:30.
The replacement policy is based on launching satellites in sequence, roughly 6 months before the expected end-of-life of a satellite.
See detailed description at
All data acquired, processed and distributed by the Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring (NTs OMZ) in Moscow.
2012 - 2023
Associated satellites and instruments
Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational
, blue tag => planned