Series of 25 operational meteorological satellites in polar orbit.
Follow-on of a number of experimental payloads hosted by multi-purpose satellites of the Cosmos series (10 launched in the timeframe 1964-1968).
Russian programme: RosHydroMet responsible of the overall programme and of running the operational phase, Roscosmos responsible of the development of the space segment.
Satellites actively stabilised over 3 axes.
The design lifetime was 6 months.
Drifting orbits with high inclination.
Replacement policy based on frequent launches: average 3.4 launches/year.
See detailed description at
Note: in the satellite descriptive sheets, because of uncertain EOL dates, a mission duration of 9 months has been assumed.
Data stored onboard and downlinked to RosHydroMet acquisition stations. Processed and disseminated by RosHydroMet.
1969 - 1978
Associated satellites and instruments
Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational
, blue tag => planned