BackForwardInstrument:  CION-2 

Instrument details
Acronym CION-2
Full name CICERO-2 Instrument for GNSS-RO
Purpose Temperature/humidity sounding with highest vertical resolution, ocean surface winds, precipitation mapping and space weather. Also potential for monitoring flooding, land cover (snow, ice, vegetation), soil moisture, and topography using GNSS-R techniques.
Short description 2nd generation radio-occultation measuring the bending angle due to refraction during occultation between GNSS and LEO satellites. Also measures reflected signals from the sea surface and has a polarimetric capability.
Background An improved version of the CION instrument on CICERO satellites to fly on the CICERO-2 satellite series.
Scanning Technique Limb scanning from 500 km to close-to-surface by time sampling - Azimuth: 90° sectors fore- and aft-
Resolution About 300 km horizontal, 0.5 km vertical
Coverage / Cycle 3 GNSS constellations tracked.
Mass 10 kg Power Data Rate

 

Providing Agency GeoOptics
Instrument Maturity Flown on operational programme
Utilization Period: ≥2022-06 to ≥2035
Last update: 2022-05-30
Detailed characteristics
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Active and radio-occultation sensor
  • GNSS radio-occultation
WIGOS Subcomponents
  • Subcomponent 2
  • Constellation of GNSS receivers [for reflectometry]
  • Ionospheric total electron content sensor [at LEO and cross magnetosphere]
  • Ionospheric electron density sensor [in LEO and cross magnetosphere]
  • Subcomponent 4
  • GNSS radio occultation constellation (commercial)
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Atmospheric temperature
  • Relative humidity
Secondary mission objectives
  • Precipitation (liquid or solid)
  • Wind speed (near surface)
Opportunity objectives
  • Land cover
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Atmospheric temperature1 - primaryInaccurate in low troposphere.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite
Geoid4 - fairHighly indirect.Radio-occultation processing implies precise orbitography. Geoid derived from multi-temporal analysis
Gravity field5 - marginalHighly indirect.Radio-occultation processing implies precise orbitography. Gravity field derived from multi-temporal analysis
Height of the top of PBL1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite. PBL top measured as discontinuity of the refraction index
Height of the tropopause1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite. Tropopause height measured as discontinuity of the refraction index
Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)5 - marginalHeavy precipitation onlyPrecipitation detected by de-polarisation measurement (experimental)
Specific humidity2 - very highInaccurate in high troposphere.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite
Temperature of the tropopause1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite
Wind speed (near surface)4 - fairOver sea only.Wind speed estimated from the intensity of signals from different incidence angles
Atmospheric density1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Measuring atmospheric density
Electron Density1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite
Ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC)2 - very highNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite
Ionospheric Scintillation4 - fairNo specific limitation.Flown in a satellite cluster. Two directional antennas, three GNSS systems tracked, about 1500 soundings/day per satellite