BackForward Satellite Programme: Laser Geodynamics Satellite 

Programme details
Programme description
  • Constellation of 3 satellites for Solid Earth.
  • Cooperative ASI-NASA programme: NASA responsible of LAGEOS-1 and launch of LAGEOS-2 by the Space Shuttle in a parking low orbit; ASI responsible of the LAGEOS-2 platform and its transport from the parking to the final orbit by IRIS (Italian Research Interim Stage); ASI responsible of LARES.  Shared operations.  
  • Passive satellites, no attitude control, no electronic devices, no communication with the ground; only reflecting surfaces.
  • The design life time of the satellites is many decades.
  • The satellites exploit high-altitude drifting orbits with specifically coordinated inclinations.
  • See detailed descriptions at and
Data circulation
  • Satellites tracked by the network of about 65 stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS).
  • Several data analysis centres in Italy, USA and other countries.
Agencies ASINASA
Programme lifetime 1976 - 2050
Associated satellites and instruments

Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational , blue tag => planned